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Growth Factors

Loss of cartilage usually occurs when the usual balance of building (synthesis) and breaking down (degradation) of tissue that helps to maintain a healthy joint becomes imbalanced. This leads to a steady decline in the quality and quantity of cartilage…

Autologous Rich Plasma

Blood is a mixture of red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and a solution of proteins called ‘plasma’. PRP, or ‘platelet-rich plasma’, is a concentrated solution of platelets taken from ‘autologous’ blood; in other words, from your own blood…


Broadly speaking, ‘nutraceuticals’ are nutrients, supplements or other dietary products that are considered to have potential medicinal or physiological effects but do not fall within standard drug classifications. The term is loosely derived from ‘nutrition' and 'pharmaceutical', and does not…

Hyaluronic Acid / Viscosupplementation

Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a naturally occurring large molecule that helps to calm down inflammation. It also increases the expression of anti-inflammatory molecules in the knee and in cartilage cells, or ‘chondrocytes’. HA stimulates the cells that generate the synovial…

Diagnosis & Treatment of Ankle Disorders

The ankle is a complex joint consisting of the tibia, talus, and fibula bones. The most common bone in the ankle to have cartilage injury is the talus. The cartilage of the talus is like any other articular cartilage and…